c/- P.O. Wool classing is the production of uniform, predictable, low-risk lines of wool, carried out by examining the characteristics of the wool in its raw state and classing (grading) it accordingly. We love sheep. Finer the wool the more will be the crimps in it. Apparel necessarily prevent contamination; however, as the chemical structure of nylon is similar to wool, it absorbs wool dyes and this makes any contamination less obvious. Wool is possibly the oldest fiber known to humans. Wool Also Keeps You Cool. 150 – 158. Australian Wool Education Trust Wool is resistant to acid, whereas cotton and cellulose are severely damaged if exposed to acid. The highest quality wool comes from the sides, shoulders, and back. Does it still have a place in classifying wool? The length varies from place to place on the animal, but it mostly varies amongst sheep breeds. Blends of different synthetic fibres with wool for suiting materials are increasingly important. Sharafeldin M. A. Wool scale. This UK breed is classified as mountain and hill. Figure 1b The relationship between crimp frequency and staple length showing that the lower crimped wools are associated with longer staples. Dr Ian Purvis, manager of Program 1 has been studying crimp as part of the Fine Wool Project and reflects on its changing importance in modern wool science. Two previously identified KRTAP8-2 alleles (A and B) were detected, but the frequency of B in the Tan sheep was much higher than reported previously for New Zealand (NZ) sheep. The sheared wool is called raw wool and since sheep don’t take showers, it must first be cleaned. In other words, is crimp related to factors that determine processing yields and the economics of processed products. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair/fur: it is crimped and elastic. What would happen to diameter, for example? Gary Robinson (right) and Phil Henry from CSIRO Geelong examine a top made from wool from the Fine Wool Project. processing consequences of different selection strategies. Crossbreed: A sheep or the wool from a sheep resulting from the breeding of two difference breeds. This is because the surface of the fibre has a very thin, waxy, lipid coating chemically bonded to the surface that cannot be easily removed. The differences in the chemical structure of the various fibres mean that different classes of dyestuffs are required to cover the range of fibre types. Alpaca is often criticized for having inadequate memory and, as a result, is often blended with 6% to 20% wool to increase memory. The fiber length ranges from 3.8-38 cm. 25-30microns and staple length, 80-120mm. Regain is the ratio of the mass of water to dry wool expressed as a percentage. 0.3), so selection for crimp will be reasonably effective if we decide that we want to change the crimp frequency of the flock. Are measured in microns (μm), which are one one-millionths of a meter. Variant A was found to be associated with both a … I will be presenting further data in The Wool Press as they become available. In the home furnishing area, the major use of wool is in carpets and rugs where wool is used more, cover to the carpets and warm in the rugs. At ambient humidity, wool will contain 10 to 15% by weight of water and up to 35% water at high relative humidity, which is more than most other fibres. Next, the wool is carded – that means brushing the wool to straighten the fibres. It was one of the first fibres to be spun into yarn and woven into a fabric. Australian Merino wool is 3-5 inches long. Fleece is a ball of wool taken from a single animal in a shearing. This molecular crimp, along with the 3-dimensional fiber, allows wool fibers to be stretched up to 50% when wet and 30% when dry, and still bounce back to their original shape when stress is released. Cheviot . Many readers have asked for a smaller book that they could carry with them … Wool, along with cotton and to a lesser extent nylon, is a fibre that absorbs moisture from the surrounding air to reach an equilibrium, which depends on the relative humidity of the environment. Polyester is the most important fibre used in blending with wool. Wool garments do not feel damp or clammy. Questions exclusive to textile topics and professional answers from the textile community. The Crimp/Diameter Relationship in an Australian Merino Flock. And because of the inner moisture, wool is naturally flame resistant. Jute Fiber – the natural cellulose bast fibers from plants or…. p.T107. The majority of wool (72.8%) is used in apparel, home furnishing account for 15-45%, industrial uses 6 to 7% and exports 5%, wool accounts for 3.3% of all fibres for apparel. Your email address will not be published. What is the relationship between crimp frequency of a fleece and its processing potential? By Deborah Robson & Carol Ekarius North Melbourne Victoria, 3051 How much does crimp frequency vary between sheep (take the frequency at the midside as the average of the sheep)? We were particularly interested in the hauteur, or mean fibre length in the top because it is has a big influence on the prices paid for wool tops. Wool is a protein fibre that has scales and crimp that make it easier to spin into yarn because the fibres interlock with each other rather than slide loosely against each other (as in the case of cotton which is made of cellulose). This information allows us to relate the average crimp frequency of a processing batch to the subsequent performance of that batch through to top stage. wool characteristics between mobs within a flock which will require those mobs to be kept separate, however where mobs are of similar breeding and husbandry conditions the Woolclasser may choose to combine those mobs to create larger lots. The move to nylon woolpacks does not Through its natural crimp, it creates miniscule air pockets, which help regulate temperature. The first thing to note is that these differences are surprisingly small. So, is it the crimp or is it the staple length that gives us the result that we see in hauteur? Finer fibres with more crimp such as Merino create fabrics that drape better than coarser fibres. Box 240 These are preliminary results in a very comprehensive program but they are certainly important to producers of fine wool who are considering using crimp frequency as part of their selection strategy. 7. Felting shrinkage is a form of shrinkage unique to wool and wool-rich fabrics and is caused by the scales on the surface of wool fibres that have a ratchet-like action allowing preferential movement of the fibre in the direction of the fibre root. Crimp is the natural wave formation found in the Huacaya fleece. In wool, the individual fibers have a characteristic crimp or waviness that ranges from tight to loose, depending on the sheep breed. Relaxation shrinkage is caused by the release of temporarily set strains imposed on the fabric in dry finishing and can be minimised by suitable finishing routes. What characteristics determine what is wool 's value? It is the same whether we look within a flock, or a bloodline, or even a strain of Merino. Gallagher J. R. Textile Research Journal. Dr Ian Purvis, manager of Program 1 has been studying crimp as part of the Fine Wool Project and reflects on its changing importance in modern wool science. Fiber widths. That is, longer staples have a lower crimp frequency. Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein substance called as keratin. The crimp of wool, or the frequency of waves in a wool staple, has been a vital part of the selection of Merino rams and ewes from the early days. What is the genetic relationship between crimp frequency and other traits that breeders might consider important in their flocks or in the flocks of clients? One of the many raw wool attributes measured on the individual fleeces that formed the processing batches was crimp frequency. This waviness is termed as ‘crimp’. The only way to Progeny of sires (and dams) with the highest clean fleece weights tend to have the lowest crimp frequency. Crimps: Wool fibre is more or less wavy and has twisted. The impact of this is that selection within a fine wool flock for increased fleece weight will produce animals in subsequent generations with lower crimp frequency. This conclusion applies only to fine wool flocks. The keratin-associated protein KAP8-2, is present in wool from sheep. This microscopic view shows us why wool is special. Flame resistant (wool usually extinguishes itself when the source of flame is removed), Weaker than cotton or linen, especially when wet, Fibres range from one to fourteen inches long, Most valued for its textured appearance and warmth, Springs back into shape after being crushed, An excellent insulator as woollens (80% air), Absorbs moisture which is held inside the fibre (the wool will still feel dry even on a humid day), Quality of wool varies with the breed of sheep, Does not attract dirt or static electricity. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In a strand of yarn, it enables the fibres to lock with one another. Finishing There are many different breeds of sheep, each with their own characteristics. About wool and its properties. AcceptRead More, Wool fiber – Basics, Characteristics, & Properties, Characteristics of Wool Fibers and Products, Summary of Characteristics of Wool Fibers. This crimp may be introduced mechanically by passing the filament between gearlike rolls. Wool Characteristics: aa043097. A ewe, or female sheep, can produce up to 15 pounds of wool. The fiber diameter measures the width of the fiber. Sheep with fleeces that were broader crimping than they thought desirable for any flock were culled and so were sheep that were too highly crimped. There are two major sources of shrinkage in wool-containing fabrics, which may be encountered during laundering: relaxation and felting shrinkage. Do we scrap it entirely or is it important in the processing of wools of any particular “type”? In wool the finer (smaller) the diameter the higher the quality of wool. The crimp is characteristic of all types of wool fibers, except for the covering hair. Will an animal’s performance be passed on strongly to the progeny? It also adds bulk and traps a large volume of air between the fibres, giving it good insulation properties. An associated question is whether a breeder can maintain a particular crimp frequency and yet make acceptable changes to other characteristics of economic (and processing) importance. Wool characteristics and processing performance of knitwear and woven fabrics. We already know that crimp frequency was used in the past as a visual indicator for mean fibre diameter. Scouring, washing or processing will not remove this layer. While wool is grown to keep an animal insulated, it is not the same as hair or fur. If there is no variation we can’t change the flock average anyway. The fleece is a bright white with good crimp and soft handle and is very even. Figure 1a. Objective measurements include diameter (micron), length, strength, position of break, vegetable matter and colour. Now that we have relatively cheap tests for diameter, breeders and sheep classers are facing the problem of what to do about the frequency of crimp. Terms & Conditions, CRC for Premium Quality Wool: 1993 – 2000 An Evaluation, A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Some wools are better suited for rugs and others for fine lace. Other articles where Crimp is discussed: man-made fibre: Crimping: In order for staple fibres to be spun into yarn, they must have a waviness, or crimp, similar to that of wool. Wool classing is done by a wool classer. This characteristic makes wool a versatile all-season fabric. This is especially surprising when viewed against Figure 1b the range of crimp frequency found in the hoggets from any of the flocks which is very much greater. The association between fleece weight and crimp frequency is slightly more complex. Wool fibers are crimped and elastic, and they have scale, which in combination give wool it’s unique characteristics. Although the wool fibre can readily absorb water vapour from the air, a garment made from wool will be water repellent to some extent. First in the west — New students graduate in Wool Science, Phil Hynd is new head of Animal Science in Adelaide. Finer wools such as merino are very crimpy, with tight waves, while coarser breeds such as Lincoln have thicker individual fibers and a looser crimp. Fleece: The wool from a single sheep in the shorn grease state. Crimp — How important is it in modern wool? The results of these unique trials will let us predict with confidence the. Synthetic fiber manufacturers have attempted to simulate these natural characteristics through mechanical processing with satisfactory results. Wool is known for its ”memory,” which is the ability of fiber processed into textiles to bounce back to its original shape. A sheering specialist can sheer 200 sheep in a day. When we looked at wools of similar length differing only in crimp frequency we found no association between crimp frequency and hauteur. Relaxation shrinkage is an irreversible change in fabric dimensions (expansion or shrinkage) that occurs only once when a fabric is first immersed in water (without agitation) and then allowed to dry. Animal Science (1975) Wool characteristics of Iraqi Awassi sheep. A.B.N. The lowest quality comes from the lower legs. Fabric Wool is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and this is the only animal fiber, which contains sulfur in addition. 1969 39(9). Before we had equipment that could measure mean fibre diameter accurately, crimp frequency (or quality number) was the most common means of estimating mean fibre diameter. Once done by hand, these days a carding machine passes the wool through a series of rollers covered with wire bristles. It is taken into account when the sheep are bonitized and the wool is classed. Felting: The matting together of wool fibers. More than 200 batches representing the pooled fleeces of the progeny of individual sires have been processed through to tops at the Geelong research mill of CSIRO’s Division of Wool Technology. Then, they need a haircut. II, pp. Twist insertion and Different Spinning Techniques, Comparison of Cleaning Treatments for Conservation and Restoration of Cotton, Wool…. Journal of the Textile Institute Transactions. At the disposal stage, natural fibres such as wool reduce the impact of the textile industry on pollution and landfill build-up. All lots sold through the auction system by AWEX are assigned an appraised style, from inferior (7) to choice (1). In this replicated experiment, we investigated the impact of cashmere in blends with superfine wools on the mechanical properties of single jersey knitted fabrics. Textile School incorporates knowledge associated to textiles right from fibers to its end usage including textile processes, trade-offs, know-how and textile standards. As Figure 1a clearly shows, when crimp frequency increases, hauteur decreases. Another term also used by the textile industry, predominately for cotton, is ‘moisture content’. Evaluation of New Zealand low and high crimp Merino wools. Breeds found in Texas and California produce fibres 2.5 inches long. The wool fiber properties particularly the fineness and crimps of Menz, Dorper and 50% Dorper sheep of different parts and age categories are significantly different. This difference is utilised in carbonising wool to remove excessive cellulosic impurities, such as burr and vegetable matter. p.883. 12 886 519 613, © 2017 Australian Wool Education Trust. On the animal, this enables the foreign matter to work its way out of the fleece. In the thin and semi-fine wool distinguish three basic forms of twists: normal, flat and high. Having said that, the term “tropical” refers to a fabric’s weave as much as its weight. If we take the nine fine/superfine bloodlines that form the Fine Wool Project flocks, and plot the average value for the hogget animals over five years, we see the differences shown in Figure 1a. Wool mostly comes from sheep but also from alpacas, camels, and goats. Crimp is a multi dimensional structure and how the crimp is expressed is determined by genetics (cortical cells- bilateral structure), amplitude, crimp frequency and micron. The amount of water absorbed by wool is usually referred to as ‘regain’. Distribution of Grade or Wool Fiber Diameter. The Field Guide to Fleece: Wool Characteristics Learn about different wool characteristics — from fiber length and diameter to crimp. Some of the qualities a wool classer examines when classing wool are: Breed of the sheep: Shedding breeds will increase the risk of medullated or pigmented fibers. The most important use of wool is for apparel coats, jackets, suits, dresses, skirts, slacks made from woven fabrics of varying weights and knitted fabrics’. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In the wool industry, a good well-crimped fleece is said to This results in the entanglement of the fibres as they move under mechanical action in water (as occurs in They are fiber diameter, crimp, yield, color, and fiber staple length/strength. Merino wool has 30 crimps per inch while coarse wool has one or two. Fiber It … The wool fibers have three-dimensional crimps, 25 waves per 10 cm in fine fiber, and 4 waves per 10 cm for coarse fibers. Nitrogen and Sulphur) for the growth of organisms as part of natural carbon and nutrient cycles. This property enables wool to act as a buffer against sudden environmental changes, for example, excessive perspiration during exercise or changes in climatic conditions such as going outside from an air-conditioned room. The absorbed moisture also holds down static electricity. The crimp in the fibre allows wool fabrics to hold air and thereby retain heat. Wool has many useful properties besides insulation. However, when we look at the genetic control, things are different. Wool is a protein fibre that comes from a variety of animals. The fiber length of 5-12 cm is used in the garment industry because this length allows the yarn to be manufactured with greater precision. However, we have done the calculations and despite concerns about changing crimp frequency in fine wool flocks, we conclude that selection that is focused on the major traits of economic importance within a flock fleece weight and diameterwill result in only very small changes over a period of, say, ten years. This article is based on a report that he presented in the CSIRO Fine Wool Newsletter. The roving is spun into yarn that is then woven into cloth. The characteristics which a wool classer would examine are: Breed of the sheep: Shedding breeds will increase the risk of medulated and/or pigmented fibres. But be careful: When wool is wet the fibers are weaker. The relationship between crimp frequency and length of fibre in the processed top (hauteur) showing that the lower crimped wools produce tops with longer hauteur. Moisture content is the ratio of the mass of water to the mass of water plus wool expressed as a percentage. Wool is graded for fineness and length. So they attempted to create uniformity in crimp frequency. This result in fabrics that are more appropriate in warmer conditions. Polypropylene and polyethylene do not absorb the dyes used to colour wool so any wool pack contamination from these fibres in the final product will appear obvious. Textiles Proceedings of the ninth wool textile research conference, vol. Yarn, Costumes: During Indus Valley Civilization, Textile Fabric Types – different types of fabrics and…, Types of Woven Fabrics – universally used fabric names, Linen Fiber and Linen Fabrics from the Flax Plants, An exclusive information portal on textiles. Perhaps the biggest issue of all, these days, and certainly an important one, is the relationship between crimp frequency and processing performance. Wool style is a ranking based on a subjective appraisal of the overall look and feel of a wool lot and considers evenness of crimp along the length of a wool staple, the extent of tip damage, dust content and penetration, colour and lustre. Studies have been conducted over several decades on crimp frequency and processing efficiency by the South African Wool Research Institute and by CSIRO Division of Wool Technology in Australia. Learn how your comment data is processed. Of the major apparel fibres, wool is the most reusable and recyclable fibre on the planet. This absorbency also gives wool its natural resistance to wrinkles. Since moisture does not remain on the surface, woollen fabrics tend to feel dry and comfortable even in damp weather. In warm, moist conditions such as in soil, wool biodegrades rapidly through the action of fungi and bacteria to essential elements (i.e. machine washing). 12—A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE WOOL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO MERINO BREEDS UNDER SEMI-ARID CONDITIONS.