2011. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS, Lodge DM, Molofsky J, With KA, et al. The characters evaluated here are probably good representatives of the various taxa examined, as they clearly distinguished them in the phylogenetic analysis. The morphological data also supported introgression between L. alatum and L. salicaria, as most of the North American L. salicaria populations had individuals that carried the L. alatum traits alternate leaf placement and 1–2 flowers per leaf axil. The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 inches long, and mostly opposite or in whorls of 3 (which may appear alternately arranged). If this volunteered in my garden I'd surely keep it. Strefeler MS, Darmo E, Becker RL, Katovich EJ. Love your site. Your Name: It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. AFLP characters shared by Michigan populations of L. alatum and L. salicaria. Only one of these was restricted to sympatric populations of L. salicaria and thus could have introgressed; however, it was also found in European populations of L. salicaria and as a result may have been introduced. In the Michigan screen of sympatric and allopatric populations, there were 123 characters found to be unique to L. alatum and 19 that were shared by some individuals of the two species. alatum winged lythrum Lythrum alatum var. 1914, non Sessé y Lacasta & Moçiño 1888. gracilior Turcz. Some of these characters could have been transferred to North American L. salicaria via introgression with L. alatum, but because they were found in European L. salicaria, it is also possible that they were introduced from Europe. Winged Loosestrife, Lythrum alatum is not the same as the botanical scourge, Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria. DC. This pattern supports introgression, but the character was also found in European L. salicaria and therefore could have been introduced. The unrooted neighbour-joining dendogram for 71 accessions in a global survey of Lythrum salicaria and L. alatum in North America and Europe. Have never come across it before- super cute plant! Inaccurate comments hurt sellers. Whether hybridization with L. alatum (winged loosestrife) could have played a role in its ultimate spread was tested. View a photo. 2. See Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Two hundred and seventy-nine characters could be assorted into four categories based on their evolutionary pattern in the NJ tree. Crossing among genotypes from multiple introductions may have played an important role in the invasion of L. salicaria, through segregation of previously unassociated genes. Height: 24 to 60 inches (60 to 150 cm). Another 71 characters were found in only L. salicaria, and as a result could not have been derived from introgression. Hardiness zone 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. Lythrum salicaria is capable of invading a variety of wetland habitats, including marshes, river and stream banks, pond edges, lakes, road site ditches, and reservoirs. Search for other works by this author on: Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, Proceedings of the Entomology Society Washington, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, © The Author 2005. Individual flowers are ¼ to ½ inch across with 6 petals, pale lavender, purple or rose-pink with a darker mid-vein, rounded at the tip and fused at the base into a short tube, forming an off-white throat. Map of native plant purveyors in the upper midwest, Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Dodge County. Once established, however, L. salicaria can exist in a wide range of soil types. lanceolatum (Elliott) Torr. However, the number of L. alatum genes retained in L. salicaria is limited, suggesting that much of the adaptive switch in North American L. salicaria more likely came from the re-assortment and selection of genes within its own genome. An email address is required, but will not be posted—it will only be used for information exchange between the 2 of us (if needed) and will never be given to a 3rd party without your express permission. Lythrum salicaria and L. alatum also formed distinct and well-separated clusters in the unrooted NJ dendogram using the Michigan AFLP data set (Fig. long (45 cm) held atop lance-shaped leaves. Please, research before posting negative comments. tomentosum (Mill.) Within the L. salicaria cluster, the introduced North American L. salicaria form a distinct terminal cluster that appears to be derived from within the larger cluster containing the cultivars and the European L. salicaria. The leaves are alternate in the upper half of the central stem and opposite from each other in the lower half; they are usually alternate in the smaller side stems. Thanks for your understanding. The field populations of L. salicaria were generally taller and had longer, narrower leaves than those of L. alatum; however, four sympatric L. salicaria populations had mean heights significantly closer to typical L. alatum than typical L. salicaria (HIS, ONP, KIL and SFA), and leaf length in two of the sympatric L. salicaria populations (HIS and SFA) were much closer to the typical mean leaf length of … In the study of sympatric and allopatric populations in Michigan, these three characters were found in all L. alatum and at least some individuals of all L. salicaria populations (Table 4). Life Cycle: Hardy perennial. – winged lythrum Subordinate Taxa. Two characters (M-CAG/E-AAG: 325 bp and M-CAG/E-AGG: 350 bp) were present in L. alatum and a few plants of L. salicaria in Massachusetts and Wisconsin. Likewise, L. salicaria and L. alatum were well differentiated within the sympatric populations. Lythrum Alatum is a native of the US. Help support this site ~ Information for sponsor opportunities. salicaria Homonyms Lythrum salicaria L. Common names (pohjan)rantakukka in Finnish Naturalist 3: 265. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. Common names are from state and federal lists. Growing alongside Valley Redtsem (Lythraceae) in a muddy patch that had ponding due to wet springs. The morphological intermediacy of these populations is consistent with their being hybrid swarms, but the molecular evidence does not support this conclusion, as the sympatric populations of L. alatum and L. salicaria did not carry any more of the unique L. alatum characters than did the allopatric populations. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. point at the tip, toothless and hairless with no leaf stalk. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Lythrum species Lythrum salicaria Name Synonyms Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. Leaves are elliptical to lance-shaped, rounded at the base and tapered to a Lower leaves are up to 2 inches long and ½ inch wide, more lance-like and opposite, becoming smaller, more oval and alternate in upper portions of the Lythrum alatum var. It features pink, purple or magenta flowers in dense spikes, up to 18 in. Your email address: (required) Lythrum is a genus of 38 species of flowering plants native to the temperate world. Description. Lythrum salicaria is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. No L. salicaria from Asia or North Africa were examined. It was brought to North America in the early 1800s through a number of pathways including Lythrum alatum - Winged Loosestrife by bob in swamp. Funding provided by the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund as recommended by the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources. Commonly known as loosestrife (a name they share with Lysimachia, which are not closely related), they are among 32 genera of the family Lythraceae. Lythrum Plant Growing and Care Guide. The molecular data indicate that introgression may have occurred between the two North American Lythrum species, although the number of genes incorporated into the genome of L. salicaria appears to be limited. Winged Loosestrife can be found growing in the same wet-mesic prairies and meadows, fens, marshes and the borders of water bodies. Sixty-six characters were fixed in both species, so could not be used to evaluate whether introgression had occurred. Grows in Sun to Part Sun. Twenty-seven characters were shared by L. alatum and L. salicaria in a broad sense, with bands both in L. alatum and in either European populations or both the European and the native North American populations. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, What makes a fig: insights from a comparative analysis of inflorescence morphogenesis in Moraceae, Dynamic modeling of cold hardiness in tea buds by imitating past temperature memory, The acquisitive-conservative axis of leaf trait variation emerges even in homogeneous environments, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Leaves oblong-ovate to linear-lanceolateÂ, Copyright © 2020 Annals of Botany Company. Nineteen AFLP characters were found in Michigan populations of both L. salicaria and L. alatum (Fig. This central stem is strongly winged and hairless. The seller's sales listing, if you read, is Lythrum Alatum NOT Lythrum Salicaria.. The Purple Loosestrife flower inhabits reed swamps, margins of lakes and slow-flowing rivers, ditches and marshes. Lythrum salicaria Also known as Black Blood, Long Purples, Purple Grass, Rainbow Weed, Red Sally, Rose Loosestrife, Rosy Strip, Sage Willow, Soldiers, Spiked Loosestrife, Willow Weed, Purple Lythrum Variation in 64 AFLPs was analysed. All rights reserved. Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund, part shade, sun; along shores, wet meadows, wet prairies. It is possible that all the Michigan L. salicaria were fixed for the other 19 traits because of an ancient introgression resulting in a single Michigan founder, but this is deemed unlikely because L. salicaria carries so much genetic variability in Michigan. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is listed as a noxious weed in nearly every state in the U.S, and is therefore illegal to sell, buy, trade or transport. & A. North American L. salicaria formed its own distinct cluster within the larger L. salicaria group, with the European and cultivar samples clustering separately from the North American group. The unrooted NJ dendrogram for the 71 accessions in the global data set is shown in Fig. Reed canary grass is present and expanding. It was introduced to the United States and Canada as an ornamental for wetlands in the 1800s. Purple Loosestrife may be distinguished from other species of Lythrum by its stems that end in dense, showy flower spikes. Spectacular when in full bloom, Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a vigorous, upright perennial enjoying an extremely long bloom season from late spring to late summer. They may not be sold in commerce and, if currently growing, must be controlled. Plants may be sheared to the ground after flowering or if foliage becomes tattered from insect damage. However, it is possible that the genes responsible were introduced from an unsampled part of the range of L. salicaria. Very similar to the more commonly known purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), wanded loosestrife is a European wetland plant that has been introduced to North America and widely sold as an ornamental.Plants grow 3-4 feet tall with showy pink to purple flowers on four-angled stems. Lythrum Alatum is a native of the US. Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. Lythrum salicaria var. Species plants are classified as noxious weeds in the State of Missouri. Flower Color is and blooms in . A plant has several racemes on erect branching stems in the upper part of the plant. Found still blooming on Aug 10 at Iron Horse prairie SNA. The unrooted neighbour-joining dendogram for 40 accessions in a survey of four sympatric and allopatric populations of Lythrum salicaria and L. alatum in Michigan. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) 1 Introduction Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is an invasive, emergent, perennial plant, native to Europe and Asia. ex Colla Lythrum salicaria var. (A) M-CAA/E-AAG: 472 bp, which is found in L. alatum and both allopatric and sympatric L. salicaria, and (B) M-CAG/E-AGG: 300 bp, which is found in L. alatum and only sympatric L. salicaria. Synonym Full Citation Basionym Type; Lythrum cordifolium Lythrum cordifolium Nieuwland, Amer. The latter is an aggressive Eurasian plant that invades wetlands and forms dense stands that exclude other species. One hundred and twenty-three characters were found in L. alatum but not in L. salicaria, which also does not support introgression. The seller's sales listing, if you read, is Lythrum Alatum NOT Lythrum Salicaria.. This indicates that these cultivars have not extensively hybridized with North American L. salicaria, and the integrity of the cultivars in nursery stock remains. This plant has no children Legal Status. One other character (M-CAG/E-AAG: 650 bp) was found in L. alatum and two of the L. salicaria cultivars (Morden's Gleam and Happy). Saw these along the sidewalk near the visitors entrance. Comment (max 1000 characters): Note: Comments or information about plants outside of Minnesota and neighboring states may not be posted because I�d like to keep the focus of this web site centered on Minnesota. Abstract • Background and Aims Although Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) was introduced to North America from Europe in the early 1800s, it did not become invasive until the 1930s. Winged Loosestrife is the native next of kin to the widely invasive and destructive Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria that was introduced by gardeners via the global nursery industry and is now ranked among the most highly problematic invasive species in North America. Flowering spikes should be deadheaded immediately after bloom to prevent self-seeding. Of these, eight were found only in L. alatum in North America and as a result had not been transferred to L. salicaria via hybridization. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. It appears that L. alatum contributed some unique genes to L. salicaria through introgression, and this could have played a role in L. salicaria becoming more invasive in North America than in Eurasia. Stems are 4-sided, have slightly raised ridges or wings that run parallel the length of the stems, and are hairless. This native plant should not be confused with Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosestrife). Despite the same genus and similar comon name, Winged Loosestrife should not be confused with the non-native, invasive Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) that threatens our North American wetlands. If sheared in mid-summer, new foliage generally will app… Lythrum alatum var. Variation in 279 AFLPs was evaluated. 4B). The Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station provided funding for this project through the Wildlife Conservation and Restoration Act (Pittman–Robertson Project Number W-127-R). Of 115 diagnostic characters identified in L. alatum, only two were clearly shown to have introgressed into L. salicaria. Gray ex Rothr. Lythrum salicaria by Ettore Balocchi. For info on subjects other than plant identification (gardening, invasive species control, edible plants, etc. Found this in an Ag field that has been converted to a CREP easement. Common Names: Loosestrife, Purple Loosetrife, Purple Willow Herb, False grass-poly, Red Sally. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Single flowers on short stalks blooming from each leaf axil, typically 2 to 5 blooming at a time in a cluster slowly ascending the branch as newer buds mature. Numbers along branches indicate bootstrap support for that branch (1000 replicates). Numbers along branches indicate bootstrap support for that branch (1000 replicates). 05 (LSD test). 6 purplish brown stamens extend out of the throat with the single greenish style hidden inside the tube. It infests waterways across the entire continental U.S. (with the exception of Florida below the panhandle) and Canada below the Arctic Circle. Where in Minnesota? & A. Pick an image for a larger view.