These changes are mainly influenced by physical-chemical (bottom-up effects) and predation (top-down effects) through the aquatic food web [10,11]. The name comes from Greek terms, phyton or “plant” (“planktos”), meaning “wanderer” or “drifter”. Phytoplankton are the base of the Antarctic food web, sustain the wealth and diversity of life for which Antarctica is renowned, and play a critical role in biogeochemical cycles that mediate global climate. Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that live in the ocean. • Spring diatoms were replaced by haptophytes and dinoflagellates in summer. Biodiversity of the ocean will change as the health of phytoplankton change (Rogelj, et al. Because phytoplankton migration would cause marine life to move with it (or die, should organisms fail to adapt quickly enough to the change in their environment), that has the potential to affect fisheries and other economies in the coastal areas. Phytoplankton; small cells that use photosynthesis to turn sunlight into food that live near the surface of the ocean. As diverse as these effects can be, changes to phytoplankton communities will occur as well. Phytoplankton are highly dependent on a diversity of nutrients and influenced by physical and chemical properties in the ocean. These changes in phytoplankton affect the zooplankton composition promoting shifts . 2009) (Nicholls, et al. Phytoplankton are very sensitive to mineral availability, including nitrate and iron, and also to light. For example, oysters utilize phytoplankton as a food source. However, the impact of changes in the dynamics of sea ice specifically on phytoplankton spring blooms, a major contributor of the annual primary production in the Arctic Ocean, remains poorly known. Shellfish are also in danger from the effects of ocean acidification. 1999). Productivity of phytoplankton depends on a number of environmental factors many of which are altering with climate change. There also responsible for about half of the Earth's primary production. • Higher phytoplankton biomass was observed during spring. Seasonal phytoplankton variability in the southern Patagonian shelf was assessed. That includes humans. ... scientists can learn more about how these plants may be contributing to and affected by, climate and environmental change. Anthropogenic influences on the climate will change these conditions. • Phytoplankton variability driven by changes in water column structure and nutrient. Ecology of Shellfish. Moreover, the dominant species of phytoplankton may also change between different seasons within a year . Some of these effects are global, some remain regional. Phytoplankton produce about 50% of the global biomass and take up an equal amount of CO2 from the atmosphere as all terrestrial ecosystems taken together. This pair of images shows changes in sea surface temperature (top) and phytoplankton productivity (bottom) between 2000 and 2004, after the last strong El Niño event, which occurred between 1997-1998. How plankton change the climate: Plankton affect our planet far more then their-size suggests. Here we report on their temporal and spatial variabilities in open waters between 2003 and 2013 using satellite ocean color data. “Because with climate change you have less mixing of the water column, we thought that the phytoplankton would have more access to light and they would simply expand, but instead we saw these bands of high and low abundance,” Cabré says.