''Gilgamesh got up and revealed the dream, saying to his mother: 'Mother, I had a dream last night. The years of its original creations and creators are still unknown, and this is what makes this epic poem so unique and interesting to read. 'The mother of Gilgamesh, the wise, all-knowing, said to her Lord;Rimat-Ninsun, the wise, all-knowing, said to Gilgamesh: 'As for the stars of the sky that appeared and the meteorite(?) Some time later, the goddess Ishtar (goddess of love and war, and daughter of the sky-god Anu) makes sexual advances to Gilgamesh, but he rejects her, because of her mistreatment of her previous lovers. Gilgamesh weeps at having failed at both opportunities to obtain immortality, and he disconsolately returns to the massive walls of his own city of Uruk. It relates ancient folklore, tales and myths and it is believed that there were many different smaller stories and myths that over time grew together into one complete work. They allow Gilgamesh to proceed when he convinces them of his divinity and his desperation, and he travels for twelve leagues through the dark tunnel where the sun travels every night. Gilgamesh offers the monster his own sisters as wives and concubines in order to distract it into giving away his seven layers of armour, and finally, with the help of the winds sent by the sun-god Shamash, Humbaba is defeated. He also begins to heed what Enkidu has said, and to learn the virtues of mercy and humility, along with courage and nobility. of Anu! Two-thirds of him is god, one-third of him is human. ), now create a zikru to it/him. as if she were strong. Your dream is good and propitious! The latest and most complete version yet found, composed no later than around 600 b.c., was signed by a Babylonian author and editor who called himself Sin-Leqi-Unninni. The Akkadian standard edition is the basis of most modern translations, with the older Sumerian versions being used to supplement it and fill in the gaps or lacunae. The Epic of Gilgamesh is, perhaps, the oldest written story on Earth. of the Ishtar Temple,three leagues and the open area(?) The mother of Gilgamesh, the wise, all-knowing, said to her son; Rimat-Ninsun, the wise, all-knowing, said to Gilgamesh: ''The axe that you saw (is) a man. body,his knees that wanted to go off with his animals went rigid;Enkidu was diminished, his running was not as before.But then he drew himself up, for his understanding had broadened.Turning around, he sat down at the harlot's feet,gazing into her face, his ears attentive as the harlot spoke.The harlot said to Enkidu: 'You are beautiful,' Enkidu, you are become like a god. 'When Aruru heard this she created within herself the zikrtt of Anu.Aruru washed her hands, she pinched off some clay, and threw it into the wilderness.In the wildness(?) Spread out your robe so he can lie upon you, and perform for this primitive the task of womankind! Epic of Gilgamesh: Old Babylonian Version. 62 quotes from The Epic of Gilgamesh: ‘Gilgamesh, where are you hurrying to? The wild man Enkidu was created by the gods both as a friend and companion for Gilgamesh, but also as a foil for him and as a focus for his excessive vigour and energy. The Land of Uruk was standing around it, the whole land had assembled about it, the populace was thronging around it, the Men clustered about it, and kissed its feet as if it were a little baby (!). 'What she kept saying found favor with him.Becoming aware of himself, he sought a friend.Enkidu spoke to the harlot: 'Come, Shamhat, take me away with you to the sacred Holy Temple, the residence of Anu and Ishtar, the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection, but who struts his power over the people like a wild bull. The newly-civilized Enkidu leaves the wilderness with his consort for the city of Uruk, where he learns to help the local shepherds and trappers in their work. When he sees her he will draw near to her, and his animals, who grew up in his wilderness, will be alien to him. The standard Akkadian version of the poem is written in loose rhythmic verse, with four beats to a line, while the older, Sumerian version has a shorter line, with two beats. T he Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient Sumerian epic poem about a demigod named Gilgamesh who tries to achieve immortality. 'Gilgamesh said to the trapper: 'Go, trapper, bring the harlot, Shamhat, with you. In time, Gilgamesh too dies, and the people of Uruk mourn his passing, knowing that they will never see his like again. The epic poem of Gilgamesh, and The Odyssey, the story of Genesis have many forms of many conflicts. Gilgamesh was a flashy warrior and leader that resolved everything with primitive actions. The world at the end of the tunnel is a bright wonderland, full of trees with leaves of jewels. A star fell from the heavens, a meteorite, and lay on the empty plain outside Uruk. She also gives Enkidu some advice and adopts him as her second son. I. The so-called “standard” Akkadian version, consisting of twelve (damaged) tablets written by the Babylonian scribe Sin-liqe-unninni some time between 1300 and 1000 BCE, was discovered in 1849 in the library of the 7th Century BCE Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, in Nineveh, the capital of the ancient Assyrian empire (in modern-day Iraq). The Epic of Gilgamesh Summary. It was he who crossed the ocean, the vast seas, to the rising sun, who explored the world regions, seeking life.It was he who reached by his own sheer strength Utanapishtim, the Faraway, who restored the sanctuaries (or: cities) that the Flood had destroyed! '… (that) you love him and embrace as a wife, 'but (that) I have compete with you.'. '' But the god Ea forewarned Utnapishtim, advising him to build a ship in readiness and to load onto it his treasures, his family and the seeds of all living things. The Epic Of Gilgamesh Essay 1198 Words | 5 Pages. As they leave, though, Utnapishtim’s wife asks her husband to have mercy on Gilgamesh for his long journey, and so he tells Gilgamesh of a plant that grows at the very bottom of the ocean that will make him young again. It is actually a near copy of an earlier tale, in which Gilgamesh sends Enkidu to retrieve some objects of his from the Underworld, but Enkidu dies and returns in the form of a spirit to relate the nature of the Underworld to Gilgamesh. ), his entire body exudes voluptuousness He has mightier strength than you, without sleeping day or night! In Sumerian king lists, Gilgamesh is noted as the fifth king ruling after the flood. It is Gilgamesh whom Shamhat loves, and Anu, Enlil, and La have enlarged his mind.' Humbaba then curses them both, and Gilgamesh finally puts an end to it. Fragments of other compositions of the Gilgamesh story have been found in other places in Mesopotamia and as far away as Syria and Turkey. 'The trapper went, bringing the harlot, Shamhat, with him.They set off on the journey, making direct way.On the third day they arrived at the appointed place,and the trapper and the harlot sat down at their posts(? When he sees you he will draw near to you. Do not be restrained—take his energy! The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia.It is one of the earliest works of literary fiction known.. You will never find that life for which you are looking. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic narrative poem written in ancient Mesopotamia. When he sees her he will draw near to her, and his animals, who grew up in his wilderness, will be alien to him. Even before you came from the mountain Gilgamesh in Uruk had dreams about you. The Epic of Gilgamesh is considered to be one of the most captivating and really worthwhile pieces of ancient works in Mesopotamian literature. 'The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man,Anu listened to their complaints,and (the gods) called out to Aruru: 'it was you, Aruru, who created mankind(? Why do you gallop around the wilderness with the wild beasts? Poetry is a form of art. You loved him and embraced him as a wife; and it is he who will repeatedly save you. The primary importance for The Epic of Gilgamesh as a piece of world literature is its age. Epic. ), 'Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father, 'day and night he arrogantly… 'Is he the shepherd of Uruk-Haven, 'is he their shepherd… 'bold, eminent, knowing, and wise, 'Gilgamesh does not leave a girl to her mother(?)! Gilgamesh is devasted by Enkidu’s death and offers gifts to the gods, in the hope that he might be allowed to walk beside Enkidu in the Underworld. The offended Ishtar insists that her father send the “Bull of Heaven” to avenge Gilgamesh’s rejection, threatening to raise the dead if he will not comply. 2016-06-03 22:48:39. Enkidu’s pessimistic description of the Underworld in this tablet is the oldest such description known. In the epic poem titled The Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh was a king who ruled over the Sumerian city of Uruk around 2600 B.C. The goddess of creation, Aruru, creates a mighty wild-man named Enkidu, a rival in strength to Gilgamesh. The epic is derived from several earlier poems written about Gilgamesh, which serve as a background for the events in the Epic of Gilgamesh. He who has seen everything, I will make known (?) Overview. Although recognized as a historical figure, Gilgamesh, as represented in the epic, is a largely legendary or mythical figure. All information has been reproduced here for educational and informational purposes to benefit site visitors, and is provided at no charge... Recite this poem (upload your own video or voice file). The Epic of Gilgamesh. 'That is he, Shamhat! But this isn't the only source and new pieces of the poem still keep turning up, helping us better understand this legendary tale. Utnapishtim then made sacrifices and libations to the gods and, although Enlil was angry that someone had survived his flood, Ea advised him to make his peace. The boat came to rest on the tip of the mountain of Nisir, where they waited for the waters to subside, releasing first a dove, then a swallow and then a raven to check for dry land. Come, let me bring you into Uruk-Haven, to the Holy Temple, the residence of Anu and Ishtar, the place of Gilgamesh, who is wise to perfection, but who struts his power over the people like a wild bull. )… (It was) at the word of Shamash, Lord of the Mountain, that you were roused (to this expedition). Unfortunately, he places the plant on the shore of a lake while he bathes, and it is stolen by a serpent, which loses its old skin and is thus reborn. ),inspect its inner wall, the likes of which no one can equal!Take hold of the threshold stone—it dates from ancient times!Go close to the Eanna Temple, the residence of Ishtar,such as no later king or man ever equaled!Go up on the wall of Uruk and walk around,examine its foundation, inspect its brickwork thoroughly.Is not (even the core of) the brick structure made of kiln-fired brick,and did not the Seven Sages themselves lay out its plans?One league city, one league palm gardens, one league lowlands, the open area(?) It tells of the historical king Gilgamesh who reigned over Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) around 2750 BCE. He plans to use the flower to rejuvenate the old men of the city of Uruk and then to use it himself. she created valiant Enkidu,born of Silence, endowed with strength by Ninurta.His whole body was shaggy with hair,he had a full head of hair like a woman,his locks billowed in profusion like Ashnan.He knew neither people nor settled living,but wore a garment like Sumukan. He orders the people of Uruk, from the lowest farmer to the highest temple priests, to also mourn Enkidu, and orders statues of Enkidu to be built. 'His fellows stand (at the alert), attentive to his (orders ! Stars of the sky appeared, and some kind of meteorite(?) of Anu. The beast brings with it a great drought and plague of the land, but Gilgamesh and Enkidu, this time without divine help, slay the beast and offer its heart to Shamash, throwing the bull’s hindquarters in the face of the outraged Ishtar. So, Enlil blessed Utnapishtim and his wife and granted them everlasting life, and took them to live in the land of the gods on the island of Dilmun. Gilgamesh tells him his story and asks for help, but Utnapishtim reprimands him because he knows that fighting the fate of humans is futile and ruins the joy in life. I loved it and embraced it as a wife. Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the protagonist of the story, Gilgamesh king of Uruk, which were fashioned into a longer Akkadian epic much later. He continually goes over the mountains, he continually jostles at the watering place with the animals, he continually plants his feet opposite the watering place. Also referred to as the “earlier” or “older” version, this … GEORGE (Author) 4.3 out of 5 stars 442 ratings See all formats and editions Shamash cracks a hole in the earth and Enkidu jumps out of it (whether as a ghost or in reality is not clear). Gilgamesh was a very powerful and strong king, but he realized that he must use his power to help the people of Uruk. 'He heeded his father's advice.The trapper went off to Uruk,he made the journey, stood inside of Uruk,and declared to… Gilgamesh: 'There is a certain fellow who has come from the mountains— he is the mightiest in the land, his strength is as mighty as the meteorite(?) Identifier. It is loosely based on the life of the real king of Uruk (modern day Iraq). Utnapishtim recounts how a great storm and flood was brought to the world by the god Enlil, who wanted to destroy all of mankind for the noise and confusion they brought to the world. A number of the usual devices of poetic embellishment are employed, including puns, deliberate ambiguity and irony, and the occasional effective use of similes. It also includes the story of a great flood very similar to the story of Noah in “The Bible” and elsewhere. When the animals are drinking at the watering place have her take off her robe and expose her sex. However, despite his reservations about why the gods should give him the same honour as himself, the hero of the flood, Utnapishtim does reluctantly decide to offer Gilgamesh a chance for immortality. The author of the poem is unknown, for the Epic of Gilgamesh is sourced from multiple fragments that have been excavated since the nineteenth century. I was afraid, so I did not go up to him. 'Shamhat unclutched her bosom, exposed her sex, and he took in her voluptuousness.She was not restrained, but took his energy.She spread out her robe and he lay upon her,she performed for the primitive the task of womankind.His lust groaned over her;for six days and seven nights Enkidu stayed aroused,and had intercourse with the harlotuntil he was sated with her charms.But when he turned his attention to his animals,the gazelles saw Enkidu and darted off,the wild animals distanced themselves from his body.Enkidu… his utterly depleted(?) 'The trapper's father spoke to him saying: 'My son, there lives in Uruk a certain Gilgamesh. ).A first day and a second they sat opposite the watering hole.The animals arrived and drank at the watering hole,the wild beasts arrived and slaked their thirst with water.Then he, Enkidu, offspring of the mountains,who eats grasses with the gazelles,came to drink at the watering hole with the animals,with the wild beasts he slaked his thirst with water.Then Shamhat saw him—a primitive,a savage fellow from the depths of the wilderness! It comes to us from Ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cunieform script. )The daughter of the warrior, the bride of the young man,the gods kept hearing their complaints, sothe gods of the heavens implored the Lord of Uruk [Anu] 'You have indeed brought into being a mighty wild bull, head raised! of Anu! Finally, the two heroes confront Humbaba, the demon-ogre guardian of the sacred trees, and a great battle commences. He curses the door he made for the gods, and he curses the trapper he met, the harlot he loved and the very day that he became human. of Anu! He tells the ferryman his story and asks for his help, but Urshanabi explains that he has just destroyed the sacred stones which allow the ferry boat to safely cross the Waters of Death. He filled in the pits that I had dug, wrenched out my traps that I had spread, released from my grasp the wild animals. Babylonian tradition says that the exorcist Si-leqi-unninni of Uruk was the author of the Gilgamesh poem called "He Who Saw the Deep," about 1200 BCE. Yet he refuses to accept the finality of death and decides to search for the source eternal life. The city of Uruk celebrates the great victory, but Enkidu has a bad dream in which the gods decide to punish Enkidu himself for the killing of the Bull of Heaven and Humbaba. Look about, Enkidu, inside Uruk-Haven, where the people show off in skirted finery, where every day is a day for some festival, where the lyre(?) But the men of Uruk muttered in their houses, ‘Gilgamesh sounds the tocsin for his amusement, his arrogance has no bounds by day or night. Introduction to The Epic of Gilgamesh. ),and the men of Uruk become anxious in…Gilgamesh does not leave a son to his father,day and night he arrogant[y(? The only way they can now cross is if Gilgamesh cuts 120 trees and fashions them into punting poles, so that they can cross the waters by using a new pole each time and by using his garment as a sail. about him who experienced all things,… alike,Anu granted him the totality of knowledge of all.He saw the Secret, discovered the Hidden,he brought information of (the time) before the Flood.He went on a distant journey, pushing himself to exhaustion,but then was brought to peace.He carved on a stone stela all of his toils,and built the wall of Uruk-Haven,the wall of the sacred Eanna Temple, the holy sanctuary.Look at its wall which gleams like copper(? This poem has not been translated into any other language yet. When he meets Urshanabi, though, he appears to be surrounded by a company of stone-giants, which Gilgamesh promptly kills, thinking them to be hostile. his mind, a gift to the gifted of the gods, had a dream of you before you knew of him. '' There will come to you a mighty man, '' a comrade who saves his friend— 'he is the mightiest in the land, he is strongest, 'he is as mighty as the meteorite(!) Gilgamesh is so full of grief and sorrow over his friend that he refuses to leave Enkidu‘s side, or allow his corpse to be buried, until six days and seven nights after his death when maggots begin to fall from his body. '[Shamhat to Enkidu:] 'Come, let us go, so he may see your face. I will lead you to Gilgamesh—I know where he will be. 'There is no rival who can raise a weapon against him. He continually goes over the mountains, he continually jostles at the watering place with the animals, he continually plants his feet opposite the watering place. Despite the antiquity of the work, we are shown, through the action, a very human concern with mortality, the search for knowledge and for an escape from the common lot of man. English translation (Looklex Encyclopaedia): Passer, deliciae meae puellae (Catullus 2), Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus (Catullus 5), Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire (Catullus 8), http://looklex.com/e.o/texts/religion/gilgamesh01.htm. In order to curb Gilgamesh’s seemingly harsh rule, the god Anu causes the creation of Enkidu, a wild man who at first lives among animals. “Epic of Gilgamesh” is one of the earliest poetic works. The Gilgamesh epic was lost for 2000 years until, in the 1850s, archaeologists unearthed the clay tablets of the Assyrian royal libraries of Nineveh. 'A second time Gilgamesh said to his mother: 'Mother, I have had another dream: 'At the gate of my marital chamber there lay an axe, 'and people had collected about it. Poetry has also changed over the years. The Epic poem Gilgamesh dates back to approximately 3000 B.C., yet it is still widely popular in the modern day 21st century, as are the themes and messages the poem may have tried to express. Despite the antiquity of the work, we are shown, through the action, a very human concern with mortality, the search for knowledge and for an escape from the common lot of man. The monster begs Gilgamesh for his life, and Gilgamesh at first pities the creature, despite Enkidu’s practical advice to kill the beast. On the way to the Cedar Forest, Gilgamesh has some bad dreams, but each time Enkidu manages to explain away the dreams as good omens, and he encourages and urges Gilgamesh on when he becomes afraid again on reaching the forest. I was afraid, so I did not go up to him. It is about the adventures of the historical King of Uruk (somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BCE). The men and women came and wondered at it. An epic is a long narrative poem, often with its roots in an oral tradition, that describes the actions of a culturally important hero. One day, when Gilgamesh himself comes to a wedding party to sleep with the bride, as is his custom, he finds his way blocked by the mighty Enkidu, who opposes Gilgamesh‘s ego, his treatment of women and the defamation of the sacred bonds of marriage. xiii-xlii). The discovery of artifacts, dating back to around 2600 BCE, associated with Enmebaragesi of Kish (who is mentioned in the legends as the father of one of Gilgamesh‘s adversaries), has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh. I tried to lift it but it was too mighty for me, I tried to turn it over but I could not budge it. He will give you the harlot Shamhat, take her with you. The Ninevite version of the epic begins with a prologue in praise of Gilgamesh, part divine and part human, the great builder and warrior, knower of all things on land and sea. First, though, he challenges Gilgamesh to stay awake for six days and seven nights, but Gilgamesh falls asleep almost before Utnapishtim finishes speaking. Years later, bored with the peaceful life in Uruk and wanting to make an everlasting name for himself, Gilgamesh proposes to travel to the sacred Cedar Forest to cut some great trees and kill the guardian, the demon Humbaba. The Epic of Gilgamesh demonstrates what it means to be human particularly in its themes concerning friendship and mortality. Further analysis of the poem The Epic of Gilgamesh, described the characteristic of king Gilgamesh from the beginning, middle, and end. The Epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian Hardcover – January 1, 2010 by Andrew (trans.) to the lands.I will teach (?) The story begins with the introduction of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, two-thirds god and one-third human, blessed by the gods with strength, courage and beauty, and the strongest and greatest king who ever existed. 'He ate grasses with the gazelles,and jostled at the watering hole with the animals;as with animals, his thirst was slaked with (mere) water.A notorious trapper came face-to-face with him opposite the watering hole.A first, a second, and a third dayhe came face-to-face with him opposite the watering hole.On seeing him the trapper's face went stark with fear,and he (Enkidu?) When he awakes after seven days of sleep, Utnapishtim ridicules his failure and sends him back to Uruk, along with the ferryman Urshanabi in exile. Gilgamesh obtains the plant by binding stones to his feet to allow him to walk on the bottom of the sea. The ageless Utnapishtim and his wife now reside in a beautiful country in another world, Dilmun, and Gilgamesh travels far to the east in search of them, crossing great rivers and oceans and mountain passes, and grappling and slaying monstrous mountain lions, bears and other beasts. '… (that) you love him and embrace as a wife, 'but (that) I have compete with you.' Take and read out from the lapis lazuli tablethow Gilgamesh went through every hardship. in Mesopotamia. 'I laid it down at your feet, 'I loved it and embraced it as a wife, 'and you made it compete with me. He also points out that Gilgamesh will become but a shadow of his former self if Enkidu were to die. There will come to you a mighty man, '' a comrade who saves his friend—. of Anu! Also, as in many oral poetry traditions, there are word for word repetitions of (often fairly long) narrative and conversation sections, and of long and elaborate greeting formulae. Overview. and drum play continually, where harlots stand about prettily, exuding voluptuousness, full of laughter and on the couch of night the sheets are spread (!).' 'You are young yet, Gilgamesh, your mother gave birth to you, and you are the offspring of Rimnt-Nlnsun (? I will challenge him… Let me shout out in Uruk: I am the mighty one!' But eventually she sends him to Urshanabi, the ferryman who must help him cross the sea to the island where Utnapishtim lives, navigating the Waters of Death, of which the slightest touch means instant death. When the animals are drinking at the watering place have her take off her robe and expose her sex. and his animals drew back home.He was rigid with fear; though stock-stillhis heart pounded and his face drained of color.He was miserable to the core,and his face looked like one who had made a long journey.The trapper addressed his father saying:' 'Father, a certain fellow has come from the mountains. Lead me in and I will change the order of things; he whose strength is mightiest is the one born in the wilderness! ~The narrative voice of the epic poem makes it difficult for the audience to relate to Gilgamesh. 'After the harlot recounted the dreams of Gilgamesh to Enkiduthe two of them made love. Nevertheless, the curse takes hold and day after day Enkidu becomes more and more ill. As he dies, he describes his descent into the horrific dark Underworld (the “House of Dust”), where the dead wear feathers like birds and eat clay. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. and around 600 B.C. Both Gilgamesh and Enkidu are transformed for the better through their new-found friendship and have many lessons to learn from each other. It was so cool we are learning about this in sshol. Epic of Gilgamesh – Epic Poem Summary – Other Ancient Civilizations – Classical Literature, Introduction – What is the epic of Gilgamesh, The city of Uruk celebrates the great victory, but. The oldest epic recognized is the Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2500–1300 BCE), which was recorded in ancient Sumer during the Neo-Sumerian Empire. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a poem written on stone tablets sometime between 2700 B.C. Addeddate. The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest existing myth in the world. Gilgamesh is determined to avoid Enkidu‘s fate and decides to make the perilous journey to visit Utnapishtim and his wife, the only humans to have survived the Great Flood and who were granted immortality by the gods, in the hope of discovering the secret of everlasting life. Go, set off to Uruk, tell Gilgamesh of this Man of Might. The two heroes cut down a huge cedar tree, and Enkidu uses it to make a massive door for the gods, which he floats down the river. It originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems in cuneiform script dating back to the early 3rd or late 2nd millenium BCE, which were later gathered into a longer Akkadian poem (the most complete version existing today, preserved on 12 clay tablets, dates from the 12th to 10th Century BCE). The Epic Of Gilgamesh 4 1 THE COMING OF ENKIDU GILGAMESH went abroad in the world, but he met with none who could withstand his arms till be came to Uruk. 'The Land of Uruk was standing around it, 'the whole land had assembled about it, 'the populace was thronging around it. The Epic of Gilgamesh full title The Epic of Gilgamesh author The ancient authors of the stories that compose the poem are anonymous. Five shorter poems in the Sumerian language (“Gilgamesh and Huwawa”, “Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven”, “Gilgamesh and Agga of Kish”, “Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the Netherworld” and “Death of Gilgamesh”), more than 1,000 years older than the Nineveh tablets, have also been discovered. of Uruk it (the wall) encloses.Find the copper tablet box,open the… of its lock of bronze,undo the fastening of its secret opening. It uses “stock epithets” (repeated common descriptive words applied to the main characters) in the same way as Homer does, although they are perhaps more sparingly used than in Homer. According to some scholars, there are many parallel verses, as well as themes or episodes, which indicate a substantial influence of the “Epic of Gilgamesh” on the later Greek epic poem “The Odyssey”, ascribed to Homer. Template:Mesopotamian myth (heroes) The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literature. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC), it is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. I laid it down at your feet, and you made it compete with me. The original title, based on the opening words, was “He Who Saw the Deep” (“Sha naqba imuru”) or, in the earlier Sumerian versions, “Surpassing All Other Kings” (“Shutur eli sharri”).