Clim. Rehfeldt, G. E., and Jaquish, B. C. (2010). Seagrass can be a cost effective flooring if you want 100% natural materials. 6:455. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00455, Kendrick, G. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. Coast. Res. B., van de Water, J. 67, 372–381. Sci. 492, 113–120. Denmark. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observa-tions from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt- doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.017, Rasheed, M. A. Biol. Is black swan grazing a threat to seagrass: indications from an observations study in New Zealand. Seagrass restoration trials started during the first half of the twentieth century, but efforts remained low until the 1970s, with 20–60 trials initiated per decade. Pollut. Available online at: (accessed May 28, 2020). doi: 10.1038/nature12859, Terrados, J., Marín, A., and Celdrán, D. (2013). However, there are still many knowledge gaps that need to be filled, especially surrounding species-specific studies and the lack of knowledge for tropical Australian species to avoid generalization of restoration techniques. Context-dependent success of restoration if a key species biodiversity and community composition. A., Gompert, Z., Nice, C. C., and Sanders, N. J. Monit. Importantly such monitoring needs to incorporate larger spatial scale assessments and mapping to be effective. Biodivers. Nonetheless, the knowledge and experience gained from these early studies have proved invaluable for developing the knowledge that has made large-scale seagrass restoration feasible today. (2015). Biological interactions in seagrasses include plant-substrate, plant-microbial communities, plant-plant (both intra- and interspecific), and between seagrass and other marine organisms/species such as shellfish, mangroves, and coral reefs. The effects of manipulation of sedimentary iron and organic matter on sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in a subtropical carbonate environment. 87, 158–168. 235, 183–200. Ecol. This is important given the differences in the geographical range of some Australian and New Zealand species. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_20, Tan, Y. M., Saunders, J. E., and Yaakub, S. M. (2018). doi: 10.3368/er.25.3.162, Keywords: seagrass ecosystems, coastal, climate change, marine plants, restoration, Citation: Tan YM, Dalby O, Kendrick GA, Statton J, Sinclair EA, Fraser MW, Macreadie PI, Gillies CL, Coleman RA, Waycott M, van Dijk K, Vergés A, Ross JD, Campbell ML, Matheson FE, Jackson EL, Irving AD, Govers LL, Connolly RM, McLeod IM, Rasheed MA, Kirkman H, Flindt MR, Lange T, Miller AD and Sherman CDH (2020) Seagrass Restoration Is Possible: Insights and Lessons From Australia and New Zealand. (2019). doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2861-7. New Zealand seagrass – more threatened than IUCN indicates. While opportunities may exist to bolster the genetic basis of seagrass populations, consideration needs to be given to species’ climate niches under future climates. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. —Eelgrass restoration using seeds is increasingly recognized as a viable option for both small- and large-scale projects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1007/s12038-015-9516-6. doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.11.005. doi: 10.1071/MF09314, Weatherall, E. J., Jackson, E. L., Hendry, R. A., and Campbell, M. L. (2016). A., Fraser, M. W., Marshall, I. P., Scholz, V. V., and Schmidt, H. (2020b). Community involvement in seagrass conservation is not new, with long term community-based monitoring programs in Queensland (McKenzie et al., 2000) and Western Australia (McKenzie et al., 2017). Belowground stressors and long-term seagrass declines in a historically degraded seagrass ecosystem after improved water quality. Eutrophication in shallow coastal bays and lagoons: the role of plants in the coastal filter. Front. B. Novel methods for the design and evaluation of marine protected areas in offshore waters. Going Forward: What Are the Gaps to Be Filled? Biol. This cost can be greatly reduced by engaging “citizen scientists” or volunteers. 79, 289–299. Since its inception, ecological engineering has come to encompass approaches such as replacing traditional built infrastructure with newly created or restored coastal ecosystems such as mangroves or salt marshes (Temmerman et al., 2013), or designing new or altering old infrastructure to add structural complexity to promote settlement of marine organisms (Martins et al., 2010; Loke et al., 2017) and reduce settlement of non-indigenous species (e.g., Dafforn, 2017). Shelf Sci. Climate-adjusted provenancing: a strategy for climate-resilient ecological restoration. Sarasota, Florida. We thank additional workshop participants Simon Branigan, John Ford, Steffan Howe, Paul Maxwell, Erik Paling, and Brooke Sullivan for their contributions, and Harriet Davies and Dr. Erica Williams for their advice on Indigenous engagement. Coast. (2008). Seed collection rates could differ based on meadow productivity, therefore, studies into whether mechanical harvesting efficiencies in the United States can be replicated on Australian and New Zealand species are worthwhile. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2018.02.014, Carstensen, J., Krause-Jensen, D., Markager, S., Timmermann, K., and Windolf, J. Mar. Change Biol. Evol. An Australian example from Western Australia’s Dampier Peninsula includes a collaboration between Western Scientists and the Bardi Jawi Indigenous rangers who have joint objectives to incorporate indigenous knowledge into the management of over 250 km of Kimberley coastline (Depczynski et al., 2019). 2009. The majority of seagrass restoration trials to date have used shoot-based techniques, with at least 46 studies since 1986 (Supplementary Table S1). Or, at least, recent studies about seagrass restoration report high costs and low success rates. doi: 10.3354/meps10916, Moilanen, A., Anderson, B. J., Eigenbrod, F., Heinemeyer, A., Roy, D. B., et al. Mar. Emerging approaches focusing on holistic and collaborative restoration practices have also recently been highlighted, aimed at creating a “global restorative culture” in order to improve human, and ecosystem health (Aronson et al., 2020). In Australia, seedling culture has also been carried out on Prunus angustifolia (Irving et al., 2010) and P. australis (Statton et al., 2013). Restor. Kirkman, H. (1989). Plant. 26, 1055–1074. Mar. (2004). Sci. Biol. The role of seagrasses in coastal protection in a changing climate. Eng. How ready are we to move species threatened from climate change? The use of these biodegradable products should continue to be explored to improve seagrass restoration outcomes through the challenging establishment phase, although their utility will likely vary with location. J. Biogeog. Natural recolonisation of seagrasses at a disused sewage sludge outfall. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00248.x, Calumpong, H. P., and Fonseca, M. S. (2001). doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.04.012, Bayraktarov, E., Saunders, M. I., Abdullah, S., Mills, M., Beher, J., Possingham, H. P., et al. Innovative techniques for large-scale collection, processing, and storage of eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds. Restor. (1999). The creation of compensatory habitat—Can it secure sustainable development? Past and ongoing shifts in Joshua tree distribution support future modeled range contraction. Recovery of experimentally created gaps within a tropical Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) Sediment-nutrient interactions in tropical seagrass beds: a comparison between a terrigenous and a carbonate sedimentary environment in South Sulawesi (Indonesia). Pollut. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00871.x, Haward, M. (2018). B., Thornber, C. S., et al. The reviewer RL declared a past supervisory role with one of the authors OD to the handling editor. Silver Spring: NOAA. Mar. Mar. Appl. For example, some species such as Halophila ovalis, can be found from the tropical waters of Southeast Asia to the temperate waters of Western Australia and New South Wales (Short et al., 2010). The decline of eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay, especially since the mid-1970s, has generated interest in restoring this valuable habitat. Involving community members in restoration and subsequent monitoring of restoration success not only raises awareness but creates a sense of ownership and encourages volunteers to return and donate more of their time (Tanner et al., 2014). Improving mechanical seagrass transplantation. Seagrass in the Eastern Bay of Islands: Past and Present Abundance, Threats and Management Options. Front. For example, the bacterium Ca. Ser. (2019). Orth, R. J., Harwell, M. C., Bailey, E. M., Bartholomew, A., Jawad, J. T., Lombana, A. V., et al. Fish. Nonetheless, it is a valuable technique and is still less labor-intensive than attempting restoration via planting vegetative fragments. Estuar. (2019). Ecol. 81, 123–129. Clim. Environ. Evaluating a large-scale eelgrass restoration project in the Chesapeake Bay. The technique is also currently suitable for seeds between 0.5 and 4 mm in size, however, the equipment needed can be adjusted accordingly for different seed sizes. Nat. These include tying seagrass shoots to metal frames which are lowered to the seafloor (e.g., Transplanting Eelgrass Remotely with Frame Systems (TERFS), Calumpong and Fonseca, 2001; Wendländer et al., 2020), or to oyster shells (Lee and Park, 2008). doi: 10.1139/a01-014, Crutsinger, G. M., Collins, M. D., Fordyce, J. Dos Santos, V. M., and Matheson, F. E. (2016). A Report for the Broome Community Seagrass Monitoring Project, Environs Kimberley. Change Biol. Ecosphere 6:23. doi: 10.1890/ES14-00460.1, Zedler, J. Efforts are already being made to make use of this valuable resource, such as during the aquaculture of P. australis seedlings where it was recommended as a low cost and readily available nutritional supplement in restoration (Statton et al., 2013). Although there is a growing understanding of the movement ecology of seagrasses (McMahon et al., 2014; Smith et al., 2018), studies on propagule viability and survival, and establishment success are currently limited (but see Campbell, 2003; Weatherall et al., 2016). Bot. Ser. 479, 63–73. Science for Conservation Report 254. Biol. doi: 10.1111/geb.12713, Smith, T. M., York, P. H., Macreadie, P. I., Keough, M. J., Ross, D. J., and Sherman, C. D. H. (2016). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02130.x, Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. 50, 183–194. NIWA Report no. Integration of western science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) through collaborations is likely to provide improved outcomes for restoration activities, as well as improved custodianship of the environment by all stakeholders into the future (Aronson et al., 2020). Spectral differences in the underwater light regime caused by sediment types in New Zealand estuaries: implications for seagrass photosynthesis. Aust. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.029. Prog. Campbell, M. L. (2003). (2017). The development of science-based restoration tools for seagrass is an essential part of the process supporting NOAA’s conservation, restoration and litigation efforts in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). Once priority areas are identified, at a more local scale, a clear understanding of environmental conditions should be incorporated into site selection before investing effort into restoration (Campbell, 2002; van Katwijk et al., 2016). 113, 395–409. (2015). Estuary muddiness and seasonally low light constrains seagrass restoration. (2016) has highlighted considerations, such as the removal of the original cause of seagrass decline or site-specific planting techniques, that needs to occur before starting on any restoration activity. Recruitment based on this technique is currently low, at approximately 1 (Marion and Orth, 2010) to 6.9% of seeds deployed (Pickerell et al., 2005). Emerging Tools, Techniques and Approaches, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2015, Department of Environmental Affairs, 2019, Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Mueller and Hellman,,, https//,,,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Ecol. Auckland: Northland Regional Council. 13, 918–934. These data can then also be incorporated into habitat suitability models to identify receptive restoration sites, which are regularly used in other marine systems like shellfish (Theuerkauf and Lipcius, 2016). Ecol. “Marine and coastal ecosystems,” in Handbook of Ecological Restoration Volume 2: Restoration in Practice, eds M. R. Perrow and A. J. Davy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 121–148. A variety of tools and techniques have recently been developed that will improve the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and scalability of restoration programs. Ecol. Collaborative designing of restoration programs between researchers, managers, and the various community stakeholders would likely increase restoration success, as each of these groups bring their own unique (though sometimes overlapping) skills and experiences. “Reproductive, dispersal and recruitment strategies in Australian seagrasses,” in Seagrasses of Australia: Structure, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, G. A. Kendrick, and P. J. Ralph (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 665–704. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.021, Mantyka-Pringle, C. S., Jardine, T. D., Bradford, L., Bharadwaj, L., Kythreotis, A. P., Fresque-Baxter, J., et al. Mar. doi: 10.1016/b978-044450891-1/50023-2. This technique provides sufficient weight to keep the transplanted shoots in place and has led to the successful restoration of about 1.5 ha of seagrass in three estuaries (Lange et al., in review). Highly disturbed habitats show increased resistance but lower genotypic diversity in a foundation marine macrophyte. Shelf Sci. (2018). Furthermore, Statton et al. Evol. Monitoring could incorporate the use of appropriately trained volunteers, which will help drive research costs down, raise awareness and encourage local communities to have a sense of ownership in restoration programs. Estuar. Acad. Mar. Seagrass rehabilitation: successful transplants and evaluation of methods at different spatial scales. A., Tan, M. H., Young, M., Ahrens, C., Cocomazzo, M., et al. doi: 10.1126/science.aal1956, Leathwick, J. R., Moilanen, A., Francis, M., Elith, J., and Taylor, P. (2008). Successful eelgrass (Zostera marina) restoration in a formerly eutrophic estuary (Boston Harbor) supports the use of a multifaceted watershed approach to mitigating eelgrass loss. Research Projects: Restoring the “kidneys” of the Great Barrier Reef. Ecol. Furthermore, these support tools can also be coupled or sequenced with ecosystem risk assessments, such as the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems (Rodríguez et al., 2015), allowing for a complete understanding of the conservation status of seagrass ecosystems, their current and future threats and opportunities for restoration. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00873.x, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Hovey, R. K., and Kendrick, G. A. (2014). Heavier emphasis is given to Australian restoration work in this review, largely due to the fact that although there has been recent activity with regards to seagrass restoration in New Zealand, the New Zealand effort to date, lags far behind Australia and the world. Lundquist, C. J., Jones, T. C., Parkes, S. M., and Bulmer, R. H. (2018). SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-87-1). Niche partitioning of intertidal seagrasses: evidence of the influence of substrate temperature. The success of this technique could be due to the addition of iron into the sediment when the nail corrodes. A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems. B Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00694.x, Tanner, C. E., and Parham, T. (2010). Orth, R. J., Bieri, J. R., Fishman, J., Harwell, M. R., Marion, S., Moore, K. A., et al. This method was trialed in the intertidal Dutch Wadden Sea, using Z. marina seeds in 2017 and 2018 (Govers, 2018). What we do know from observations of natural recovery processes in tropical Australia (Rasheed et al., 2014; McKenna et al., 2015) is that the life history and reproductive strategies of many tropical species could be well-suited to restoration as they have the capacity for rapid clonal growth once established. In contrast, translocations (e.g., physical planting) in combination with habitat restoration investments would be needed in areas with limited propagule supply to ensure population establishment. Human assistance isn’t always necessary, though. Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services. Science 321, 345–346. Tuya, F., Haroun, R., and Espino, F. (2014). SAV Technical Notes Collection (ERDC/TN SAV-07-2). A standard, analytical protocol for the quantitation of non-structural carbohydrates in seagrasses that permits inter-laboratory comparison. Extrapolating from the costs of the small-scale trial conducted here, it will cost on the order of $10,000 to rehabilitate one hectare of seagrass. Seagrasses have the potential to disperse over long distances via ocean currents during various life-history stages (Kendrick et al., 2012; McMahon et al., 2018). 17, 230–237. Efforts have been made to reduce seagrass loss through reducing local and regional stressors, and through active restoration. Thiodiazotropha oxidizes sulfides in sediments, which can prevent sulfide intrusion, a driver that is known to hinder seagrass recolonization (Fraser and Kendrick, 2017). Shelf Sci. A., Burkholder, D. A., Heithaus, M. R., Fourqurean, J. W., Fraser, M. W., Statton, J., et al. Environ. The specific goal was to develop techniques and infrastructure to fully exploit potential mechanized seed-harvesting capabilities, and to identify optimal conditions for storage and survival of large volumes of harvested seeds. (2019). Mar. 56, 1015–1021. Yet sediment dynamics are relatively understudied (except see Campbell et al., 2018) and often neglected in seagrass site suitability assessments and preparation. (2017). Sci. Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. 99, 1217–1230. Biol. Central and rear-edge populations can be equally vulnerable to warming. Mar. doi: 10.3354/meps12029, Nursey-Bray, M., Palmer, R., Smith, T. F., and Rist, P. (2019). The use of BuDS ensures high genetic diversity, which is positively correlated to rates of sexual reproduction, vegetative propagation, and overall shoot density (Williams, 2001; Reynolds et al., 2012). Courage under fire: seagrass persistence adjacent to a highly urbanised city–state. Consequently, selecting genetically diverse meadow(s) as a donor source is important for maximizing restoration success (Reynolds et al., 2012, 2013). Evidence of genomic adaptation to climate in Eucalyptus microcarpa: implications for adaptive potential to projected climate change. Ecol. (2006). Received: 14 February 2020; Accepted: 06 July 2020;Published: 14 August 2020. Evol. 120, 214–224. Despite the success of eelgrass seeding efforts, many young seedlings fail to develop into adult plants, and recent evidence suggests that waves and currents remove many young seedlings before they become established. An adapted version of this method is currently being trialed for underwater seeding. Eelgrass recovery in the coastal bays of the Virginia Coast Reserve, USA. Aquat. A. Shelf Sci. A review by van Katwijk et al. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200059, Lee, K.-S., and Park, J.-I. These materials can promote the establishment of naturally dispersing seedlings (Tanner, 2015), protect seeds from predation (Orth et al., 2006), enhance survival of restored shoots (Ferretto et al., 2019), and exclude bioturbating animals, thus increasing survival rates (Wendländer et al., 2020). Initial results suggest that efforts to improve water quality and restore and protect seagrass may start an "ecological chain reaction" in which clearer, cleaner water promotes grass growth, which further improves water quality for expansion of even more seagrass. doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0096-y, Aronson, J., Goodwin, N., Orlando, L., Eisenberg, C., and Cross, A. T. (2020). This might be achieved by moving genotypes from warmer adapted populations to cooler locations to increase the probability of tolerance to rising ocean temperatures (Schueler et al., 2013; Bansal et al., 2015; Wood et al., 2019). These environments are particularly susceptible to warming and extreme temperature fluctuations, compared with open coastal environments (Harley et al., 2006). One example of this is the Seagrass Restoration Network2, which was established in 2015 to link researchers, managers and practitioners worldwide and facilitate the sharing of knowledge and tools for seagrass conservation and restoration. Use of Posidonia oceanica seedlings from beach-cast fruits for seagrass planting. An experimental study in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Ecol. Coasts 33, 1340–1354. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts. Department for Environment and Water (2017). 70, 936–951. Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies. Altogether, more than 40,000 shoots were transplanted in the three systems. doi: 10.1890/1540-929520075[153:IPIIAR]2.0.CO;2, Hampe, A., and Petit, R. J. For example, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is one of the key environmental protection legislations in Australia. This is a problem not unique to Australian and New Zealand studies (van Katwijk et al., 2016). doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2333-y, Broadhurst, L. M., Lowe, A., Coates, D. J., Cunningham, S. A., McDonald, M., Vesk, P. A., et al. “Set-backs and successes: seagrass restoration in the Dutch Wadden Sea,” Paper Presented to World Seagrass Conference, Singapore. (2012). This is further exacerbated by a lack of funding, as restoration is often perceived as too expensive and wrought with failures. Adaptive genetic diversity of trees for forest conservation in a future climate: a case study on Norway spruce in Austria. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007, Jänes, H., Macreadie, P. I., Nicholson, E., Ierodioconou, D., Reeves, S., Taylor, M. D., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2018.08.006, Staehr, P. A., and Wernberg, T. (2009). 250, 133–167. Economic assessment of ecosystem services: monetary value of seagrass meadows for coastal fisheries. Bull. The median cost of seagrass restoration was estimated at USD 106,782 per hectare based on 64 published studies (Bayraktarov et al., 2016), and this can be 10–400 times higher than the costs documented for terrestrial ecosystem restoration (Jacob et al., 2018). Bot. Department of Environmental Affairs (2019). Biol. doi: 10.1111/faf.12416, Jardine, T. D. (2019). Sci., 14 August 2020 Bot. Eng. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting. A framework for the practical science necessary to restore sustainable, resilient and biodiverse ecosystems. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13605, Gillies, C. L., McLeod, I. M., Alleway, H. K., Cook, P., Crawford, C., Creighton, C., et al. Appl. doi: 10.1007/s10021-007-9099-7, van Katwijk, M. M., Thorhaug, A., Marbà, N., Orth, R. J., Duarte, C. M., Kendrick, G. A., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.05.008, Schueler, S., Kapeller, S., Konrad, H., Geburek, T., Mengl, M., Bozzano, M., et al. doi: 10.3354/meps10211, Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Hughes, L., McIntyre, S., Lindenmayer, D. B., Parmesan, C., Possingham, H. P., et al. Seagrass Ecology. Conservat. Conserv. Second row left to right: seagrass nurseries (© Gary Kendrick and John Statton); anchoring shoots using iron nails (© Troels Lange). 7:617. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00617. The use of seedlings in restoration is more well-established, especially in the use of hessian bags which act as a substrate for Amphibolis seedling recruitment. (2016). 217, 1449–1462. A few restoration trials in Australia and New Zealand have utilized community volunteers, such as the collection of Posidonia shoots detached after storms for transplantation3, community planting days on Kangaroo Island (Tanner et al., 2014), engaging recreational fishers in broadcasting seagrass seeds (Seeds for Snapper)4, collection of Z. muelleri spathes for seed-based restoration in partnership with Indigenous sea rangers (Gidarjil Development Corporation) in the Port of Gladstone (Central Queensland University, 2020), and participation in seagrass transplantation trials in Whangarei and Porirua Harbors, New Zealand (F.E. There is now a growing emphasis on seed-based restoration, largely due to the lower impact it has on existing meadows (i.e., removal of large numbers of fragments or cores in shoot-based restoration), and its potential for upscaling (Orth et al., 2006). Bull. 39, 830–838. (2015). Coasts 40, 200–212. State Government of Victoria (2016). Mar. New Zealand Māori have been important initiators, partners and/or supporters of seagrass restoration projects in Whangarei Harbor (i.e., Whangarei Harbor kaitiaki roopu, Reed et al., 2004), Bay of Islands (i.e., Ngāti Kuta-Patukeha, Matheson et al., 2010), and Porirua Harbor (i.e., Ngāti Toa, Matheson and Wadhwa, 2012). Coast. Populations inhabiting trailing (or warming) range edges are often less well connected through dispersal, but can exhibit a high degree of local adaptation and thus contain unique genotypes necessary for future survival. Genet. Prog. This study tested the efficiency of a mechanized planting boat, previously used for transplanting Halodule wrightii, relative to manual transplanting methods for establishing eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay. Aquacult. A broad-scale assessment of the risk to coastal seagrasses from cumulative threats. Estuar. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12637, Cumming, E., Jarvis, J. C., Sherman, C. D. H., York, P. H., and Smith, T. M. (2017). Mar. Here we highlight the success of our efforts to restore eelgrass to VIrginia's seaside bays, and a related effort to reintroduce bay scallops to those restored eelgrass meadows. 9, 311–326. Bioscience 61, 107–116. Typically, this can be determined empirically using quantitative (e.g., glass house or common garden experiments; Byars et al., 2007; Browne et al., 2019; Miller et al., 2019a) or correlative (e.g., genomic assessments for genotype x environment associations; Jordan et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019b) genetic approaches. Acad. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis. Lastly, the current consensus in seagrass restoration is to arrange transplanted seeds, fragments or cores spaced apart to reduce competition, allowing for increased growth and survival (Halpern et al., 2007). However, direct injecting of seeds has yet to be trialed for other seagrass species and is likely more labor intensive compared to other seeding techniques such as hand-casting. Ecological restoration of land with particular reference to the mining of metals and industrial minerals: a review of theory and practice. For example, the Catchment Management Framework in Victoria, Australia, set up under the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 (CaLP Act), incorporates environmental, economic, and social considerations for the coordinated management of land, water, and biodiversity resources based on catchment areas (State Government of Victoria, 2020). Restoration of tropical seagrass beds using wild bird fertilization and sediment regrading. Biol. Conserv. Hedge, P., and Bessen, B. A combined understanding of the dispersal mechanisms and reproductive biology of seagrasses will add to the overall understanding of spatial and genetic connectivity. In the 1970s, when seagrass loss started to accelerate (Waycott et al. 27, 421–430.