Governor William Berkeley feared rebellion: “six parts of Seven at least are Poore, Indebted, Discontented and Armed.” Planter Nathaniel Bacon focused inland colonists’ anger at local Indians, who they felt were holding back settlement, and at a distant government unwilling to aid them. After accusations that Nathaniel cheated another young man of his inheritance, Thomas Bacon sailed into exile across the Atlantic to the colony of Virginia. He attended Fisk University and Syracuse University. Instead of peac… They were more interested in searching for gold than in establishing permanent colonies. Bacon’s Rebellion was a brief yet meaningful uprising of western farmers against the government of Virginia culminating in the burning of Jamestown on September 19, 1676. He had been their governor once before. Otis Smith Served from 1961 through 1966 Oral History / Read the full transcript / Portrait Dedication. In part their differences seem to have been a result of personality conflicts between two ambitious and strong-minded men—an irascible, opinionated, aging, cautious, and avaricious governor and his youthful, ambitious, impetuous, and demagogic cousin by marriage. The alliance between European indentured servants and Africans(a mix of indentured, enslaved, and free Blacks) disturbed the colonial upper class. Died at Twickenham, England, 1677. Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration (1676) by Nathaniel Bacon. In a fury, Berkeley tried to capture his impulsive kinsman, but Bacon got away. By then, Bacon’s rebellion was falling to pieces. He challenged the power of the governor and his fellow wealthy planters. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Now Sir William grasped the weakness … Humiliated and furious, Bacon gathered his troops. He was no stranger to them. Introduction. When you have finished you will chose which character you support and tell why. When you have finished you will chose which character you support and tell why. In the year 1660 Sir William Berkeley was proclaimed Governor of Virginia under King Charles II of England, son of the beheaded Charles I. Nathaniel Bacon called himself a 'General' supported by the people. The fury of Bacon's Rebellion was directed primarily against the Native Americans. Nathaniel Bacon (1647–76), the disgruntled but wealthy son of English gentry, arrived in Virginia in 1674. Omissions? In September, matters came to a head. Berkeley had fled across the river to avoid capture. Bacon was a troublemaker a… His Declaration against the Proceedings of Nathaniel Bacon. Vols. Bacon's Rebellion collapsed after Bacon died of a fever in October 1676. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. What started as a dispute between settlers and Indians on the Virginia-Maryland border in the fall of 1675 quickly erupted into a full scale rebellion by Nathaniel Bacon against Governor Sir William Berkeley, a wealthy planter, and his government the following year. Nathaniel Bacon (1640–1676) was a Virginia planter and the leader of the insurrection against Virginia Governor William Berkeley subsequently labeled Bacon's Rebellion. He began to amass a militia of his own. When the colonists called on their governor for military support, he refused. Otis M. Smith was born in Memphis, Tennessee, on February 20, 1922. Soon Bacon was himself appointed to the governor's council. William Berkeley and Nathaniel Bacon were two selfish …show more content… It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in Maryland involving John Coode and Josias Fendall took place shortly afterward). In a fury, Berkeley tried to capture his impulsive kinsman, but Bacon got away. Among the mob were black and white indentured servants. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. He continued the executions over the objections of the King's commissioners, who were sent to replace Berkeley and report on conditions in Virginia. Nathaniel Bacon, a noble man, always possessed status but when he could not compete with Berkeley he sought another way to become more powerful. In defiance of Berkeley, in 1676 Bacon organized an expedition against the Indians. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon began a mutiny against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley, because Bacon (and many other Virginians) wanted to pursue a more vigorous war against the Indians than Berkeley would allow. Charismatic and courageous, he had spent the last several months leading a growing group of rebels in a bloody battle against William Berkeley, the colonial governor, and he wasn’t about to stop now. There, they faced threats from Native Americans intent on protecting their ancestral lands. Upon arriving in Virginia, Nathaniel Bacon bought two frontier plantations on the James River. It was an event that greatly contributed to the county’s move from using white indentured servants in favor of African slaves. He travelled around Europe (Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Franc… Nathaniel was his father's only son, and had one full sister, and a half-sister by his father's second wife Martha (Reade), his natural mother having died in 1649 when he was two years old. He was born to to wealthy merchant parents Thomas Bacon and wife Elizabeth Brooke Bacon & was educated at Cambridge University. Nathaniel Bacon comes to Jamestown to take his seat in the upper legislative house, the Council, but instead goes into hiding with the assistance of William Drummond of Albemarle. For the present, they felt that the colony was safe. Bacon's Rebellion was triggered when a grab for Native American lands was denied. Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion held by Virginia settlers that took place in 1676. Bacon captured Jamestown and William Berkeley was forced to flee to the Eastern Shore. Hide in the woods for the time being, but keep up the fight when they arrive. Berkeley had long tried to balance his colonists’ wishes against those of the tribes on Virginia’s borders. Bacon’s rebellion is considered to be one of the most dramatic confrontations to have happened in Virginia in the 17th century. Now it was a smoldering ruin, and Nathaniel Bacon was on the run. On June 30, 1676, Nathaniel Bacon issued "The Declaration of the People against Sr. William Berkeley." There, they met a group of Occaneechi people, whom they enlisted to help them fight a group of Susquehannocks. William … After watching each of the video clips, discuss … Fearing a large-scale war with Native Americans, Berkeley turned his forces against Bacon and his men. Corrections? 2.---One Cookson, taken in rebellion. A relative of both the governor, Sir William Berkeley, and his wealthy wife, Frances Culpeper … By virtue of his social position and financial means, his kinship by marriage to Gov. The settlers’ avowed enemy, the Susquehannocks and their allies, were in front of him in the upper counties of Virginia while Governor William Berkeley’s English army and militia were getting ready to attack Bacon from the rear. Backlash from Bacon’s rebellion is credited with helping kick off the racial distinctions that defined the colonies and the United States that followed. Berkeley was the youngest son of Sir Maurice Berkeley and the brother of John Berkeley, lst Baron Berkeley of Stratton, one of the Carolina and New…. The day before Charles II’s proclamation about the rebellion, Bacon died of dysentery. William Berkeley in 1676, which collapsed when Bacon died from dysentery. William Berkeley once again claimed that Bacon was a rebel and a traitor who had to be stopped. For the present, they felt that the colony was safe. On June 30, 1676, Nathaniel Bacon issued "The Declaration of the People against Sr. William Berkeley." Later Berkeley again denounced Bacon’s activities as rebellious and launched several military expeditions against Bacon and the 60 or so colonists who had followed him in retaliatory raids on the Native Americans. “The governor would have hanged half the country, if they had let him alone,” remarked one observer. By Sir William Berkeley (1605–1677) [Born near London, England. The other was Nathaniel Bacon, an immature, lazy schemer who was sent to Virginia by his dad in the hopes he would grow up. This mutiny was the spark that lit the flame of Bacon… Bacon’s Rebellion was a brief yet meaningful uprising of western farmers against the government of Virginia culminating in the burning of Jamestown on September 19, 1676. This mutiny was the spark that lit the flame of Bacon… Nathaniel Bacon is best known as the man who led an uprising against colonial Virginia Gov. Bacon’s Rebellion was a war between two actual cousins. Governor William Berkeley feared rebellion: “six parts of Seven at least are Poore, Indebted, Discontented and Armed.” Planter Nathaniel Bacon focused the anger of inland colonists at local Indians, who they felt were holding back settlement, and at a distant government unwilling to aid them. Nathaniel Bacon led an armed revolt against the government of Governor William Berkeley because of: A lack of retaliatory action against Indian attacks on western farmers He was a devoted royalist and Cavalier who had gained his first appointment in 1740 for loyal service to Charles I in peace and war. The rebellion dissolves and two of his supporters, William Drummond and Giles Bland, are executed. Nathaniel Bacon was born in Suffolk, England on 2nd January, 1647. He settled near Williamsburg & bought two frontier plantati… Updates? May 1676 - Governor Sir William Berkeley expels Nathaniel Bacon from the Council and brands him a rebel. In 1676 Bacon organized his own expedition. CONDEMNED AT MY HOUSE, AND EXECUTED WHEN BACON LAY BEFORE JAMESTOWN. After Bacon defeated several tribes, he and his followers, branded rebels by Berkeley, captured and burned Jamestown. Berkeley refused, infuriating Bacon. His name and reputation as Governor of Virginia were well respected. It was also marred by the ambitions of his cousin by marriage, Nathaniel Bacon. Charles II’s commission clashed with the governor, whose authority had been undermined and whose 27 years of governance were now ending in disgrace. Bacon with supporters like indentured servants, middle class and lower-class individuals, who were against Berkeley’s rule. Berkeley favoured a policy of containment, whereas Bacon wanted to expand into areas controlled by Native Americans. Bacons enthusiastic friends elected him a member of the Legislature, and when the time came for him to take his seat, forty of them went down to Jamestown with him in a sloop. Bacon’s Rebellion was a war between two actual cousins. Nathaniel Bacon (right) and his rebel followers confront Virginia governor Sir William Berkeley with his failure to protect them from Native American attacks. [Conceived in Liberty (1975). Nathaniel Bacon was caught in a dilemma on a hot July day in 1676. Compare and contrast the original settlers of Jamestown with those who arrived after 1612. Berkeley's antagonist, young Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., was actually Berkeley's cousin by marriage. Since his cousin was a prominent militia colonel and friend of governor William Berkeley, Bacon settled in Jamestown, the capital. At the start the governor branded Bacon a rebel, but he was soon forced by public pressure to give Bacon a commission. With his 500-man army surrounding the statehouse, Nathaniel Bacon intimidated officials into declaring Bacon the "commander in chiefe (sic)" in the war against Indigenous people on June 23 1676. Sir William Berkeley… Bacon’s Rebellion The main grievances during this time were against Governor Sir William Berkeley. Berkeley and Bacon’s cordial relationship was short-lived. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley. Governor William Berkeley feared rebellion: “six parts of Seven at least are Poore, Indebted, Discontented and Armed.” Planter Nathaniel Bacon focused the anger of inland colonists at local Indians, who they felt were holding back settlement, and at a distant government unwilling to aid them. Governor Berkeley had been traveling throughout Virginia to recruit supporters of his own, and returned to Jamestown to issue a final proclamation condemning Bacon. Nathaniel Bacon accepted command of an illegal troop of Indian fighters and disregarded the governor's warning against leading the volunteers. Nathaniel Bacon led an armed revolt against the government of Governor William Berkeley because of: A lack of retaliatory action against Indian attacks on western farmers Governor Sir William Berkeley was a veteran of the English Civil Wars, a frontier Indian fighter, a Governor in the 1640's, a playwright and scholar. Under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon, indentured servants and rich planters alike joined together to protest the rule of Bacon’s cousin, Governor William Berkeley. Died at Twickenham, England, 1677. At Berkeley’s insistence, 23 of Bacon’s supporters were hanged. Berkeley called it rebellion, and the forces of the two men clashed. Today, though, historians see it as a tussle over the ownership of the colonial frontier and an effort to further drive Native Americans off their lands. Because he exploited the colonial grievances that stemmed in part from the arbitrary, self-perpetuating, and privilege-seeking nature of Berkeley’s government, Bacon sometimes has been pictured by some historians as a democratic reformer and forerunner of the American Revolution. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Bacon and his men began conducting their own raids around the colony, attacking friendly tribes like the Pamunkey people, and gathering more supporters as they went. Sir William Berkeley, British colonial governor of Virginia during Bacon’s Rebellion, an armed uprising (1676) against his moderate Indian policy. Compare and contrast the original settlers of Jamestown with those who arrived after 1612. “Here, shoot me!” yelled Berkeley, daring Bacon to shoot. After Bacon defeated several tribes, he and his followers, branded rebels by Berkeley, captured and burned Jamestown. A kinsman of the famous Sir Francis Bacon, Nathaniel Bacon graduated from the University of Cambridge, toured the continent, and studied law at Gray’s Inn. Clifford W. Taylor was born November 9, 1942, in Delaware, Ohio. William Berkeley (1606–77), the colonial governor, hewed to a policy that honored alliances with friendly tribes, which in turn acted as buffers and allies against the hostile tribes. The settlers must have had mixed feelings about Sir William's becoming governor. As you watch the clips of the events, please list the pros and cons for both Nathaniel Bacon and Governor William Berkeley on this chart. Description. “The planters had not been able to control this rowdy labor force of servants and slaves,” historian Ira Berlin told PBS. He was born to to wealthy merchant parents Thomas Bacon and wife Elizabeth Brooke Bacon & was educated at Cambridge University. After accusations that Nathaniel cheated another young man of his inheritance, Thomas Bacon sailed into exile across the Atlantic to the colony of Virginia. The central figures in Bacon's Rebellion were opposites. Bacon endorsed a policy of removing all Indians in the interest of unlimited territorial expansion and as a revenge for earlier Native American attacks on the frontier settlements. At the time, wealthy settlers had built profitable tobacco plantations and used their crops to pay high colonial taxes. By Sir William Berkeley (1605–1677) [Born near London, England. By virtue of his social position and financial means, his kinship by marriage to Gov. He settled near Williamsburg & bought two frontier plantati… Berkeley wanted to foster trade with the Indians; Bacon was for their removal from the colony and in 1676 led an expedition against the Indians. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley.It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in Maryland involving John Coode and Josias Fendall took place shortly afterward). With the governorship came a generous grant and he built … Nathaniel Bacon (1647–76), the disgruntled but wealthy son of English gentry, arrived in Virginia in 1674. Nathaniel Bacon (1647–1676) Nathaniel Bacon was a member of the governor's Council and, in 1676, a leader of Bacon's Rebellion (1676–1677), a dramatic uprising against the governor that ended with Bacon's sudden death. Why did William Berkeley accuse Nathaniel Bacon of being a traitor? Vols. Her disinheritance and the involvement of Bacon in a rather unsavory deal to defraud a neighbour of his inheritance contributed to Bacon’s decision to migrate to North America. Nathaniel Bacon is best known as the man who led an uprising against colonial Virginia Gov. I–II: Colonial Literature, 1607–1764. Nathaniel Bacon dies of illness. During this time, Berkeley did come out of his lethargy and attempt a coup, but support for Bacon was still too strong and Berkeley was forced to flee to Accomack County on the Eastern Shore. But Bacon was immediately elected to that legislative body, and when he headed to Jamestown to begin his tenure there, was met with a chilly welcome. ... the nearby home of Gov. In 2004, a small group of Occaneechi descendants bought back a 25-acre parcel of their traditional lands—the first time Occaneechi people have owned land as a tribe for over 250 years. Bacon, who had recently arrived in Virginia and was Berkeley’s cousin by marriage, was disgusted by what he viewed as the governor’s disloyalty and unfairness. Nathaniel Bacon, (born January 2, 1647, Suffolk, England—died October 1676, Virginia [U.S.]), Virginia planter and leader of Bacon’s Rebellion (1676), the first popular revolt in England’s North American colonies. His name and reputation as Governor of Virginia were well respected. His marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Duke of Suffolk, was violently opposed by her father. With the financial support of his father, he purchased two estates along the James River in Virginia. “Sick, and weakened by the crossing, six weeks later Berkeley landed in London a broken man,” writes historian Warren M. Billings. “But soon after Bacon's Rebellion they increasingly distinguish between people of African descent and people of European descent. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nathaniel-Bacon, Encyclopedia Virginia - Biography of Nathaniel Bacon, The Civil War - Biography of Nathaniel Bacon. But his attempts to appease all sides failed, especially when he used new trade rules to increase his wealthy friends’ fortunes. When Bacon arrived, Berkeley gave him land and a seat on the council.Bacon’s privilege aside, life in Virginia was harsh, filled with drought, starvation, and fighting with Native Americans. Jamestown had once been the bustling capital of the Colony of Virginia. William Berkeleyappointed Bacon to his governing council but the two men soon fell out about the development of the colony. This inflammatory document accused Virginia's Royal Governor -- William Berkeley -- of abusing and betraying his fellow English settlers. Although Nathaniel Bacon was able to drive William Berkeley out of Jamestown, he knew that his men couldn't hold it against the governor's forces. Why did William Berkeley accuse Nathaniel Bacon of being a traitor? Jamestown had once been the bustling capital of the Colony of Virginia. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Nathaniel Bacon accepted command of an illegal troop of Indian fighters and disregarded the governor's warning against leading the volunteers.