and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } Other factors that “taint” the meat are the use of certain ingredients in rations. The quality of meats can be compromised, as well, when weather impedes the ability to care for and feed livestock. As a result of the commercial benefits to the retailer, US Beef producers are paid a premium when producing beef using technology to achieve this. The quality measurement methods are grouped according to measurement principle. Nair, C. Zhai, in Meat Quality Analysis, 2020. Stress The influence on meat quality of maintaining the cold chain during slaughter and processing is bacterial. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Hence the application of novel tools such as proteomics has gathered a lot of interest from the meat scientific community in the past decade. 6. Since there are significant variations in bird rearing methods and nutrition this results in a wide variation of feather development and possibly bone ossification for birds of same age. (2012) compared 4 goat breeds (meat, double … C. Borggaard, J.R. Andersen, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, 2004. Minimising stress at all stages of production is continually emphasised and extremely important as it is associated with DFD (Dry Firm Dark) meat and long term stressed animals result in high pH levels in the meat. HCCP – Hazard Critical Control Points – systems are compulsory now in many regions – but whether or not they are compulsory, a good HCCP system should be implemented as part of a quality control program. Advanced nutritionists will tell you that the basics of livestock nutrition are the same for all specie – the skill comes in identifying the unique requirements and tolerances as they apply to each specie. Post-slaughter effects such as carcase chilling and electrical stimulation, ageing, carcase hanging and cooking method have been shown to have a significant impact on eating quality when compared with pre-slaughter activities such as animal handling and lairage time in the Northern Ireland studies. So the aim of this chapter is to focus on the current state of meat quality evaluation, substantiated with background information, along with a brief description of advanced meat quality evaluation techniques. Increasingly discerning consumers, the influence of the globalisation of agriculture, the increasing influence of supermarkets and marketing chains looking for absolute consistency have seen significant developments, over the last thirty years, in nutritional technology being used as a mechanism to improve meat quality. Frozen clearly provides the greatest shelf life so long as the display freezers are maintained at the correct temperatures. How animals are handled pre-slaughter affects the rate of rigor mortis. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). A total of 272 QTLs for abdominal fat and 52 QTLs for meat quality traits have been identified in a diversity of chicken chromosomal regions (Chicken QTLdb. The animals' meat quality significantly depends on the type of food they are being fed. In all other production livestock specie an animal carrying white fat is recognised as being healthier and that it produces a better tasting meat. There will need to be many more studies carried out to provide sufficient data to be able to determine the accuracy of this method for age evaluation in Ostrich. Geography is closely tied to weather and clim… When each level of “need” is satisfied, it becomes less dominant and the next level up takes on more importance. In high-income countries, there has been a tendency for meat consumption to fall, leading to the idea of an inverted U-shaped curve (or Engel curve) between personal income and meat consumption. c. Vaccination program, antibiotics and hygiene Meat quality and consistency are important in ensuring consumer satisfaction. It is important that you check with your own veterinarian as to what is permitted in your country. Imbalanced rations affects the formation and degradation of minerals and vitamins in liver and kidney causing yellow fat, possible tainting of the meat and will also result in less acceptable quality offal. Provided the animal meets the basic health criteria all meat is fit for human consumption, with different ages having different uses, different markets and therefore different price structures. This analysis revealed that lactate is in every case the most important metabolite in the blood at the time of slaughter for the technological quality of pork (Bertram et al., 2010). The discrepancy in the two studies most likely originates from the fact that, in relation to preslaughter stress, anaerobic glycolysis plays a more dominant role than in conditions where variations in meat quality originate from variations in the ultimate pH. It is important to differentiate between nutrition that “forces” certain factors that may be considered “against nature” as opposed to “quality nutrition” that enables the specie to develop naturally to the full genetic potential. This chapter also discusses the major challenges encountered in the application of advanced meat quality evaluation techniques. Some independent studies have confirmed that slaughter aged birds do not begin to regain lost body weight back for 3-4 weeks after a move of significant distance and being held in a strange environment. b. Ageing is one of the main factors that affect variation in tenderness. In some developing countries, the price of meat and its availability or continuity of supply are the most important factors for consumers. //